For offer, a very rare book. Fresh from an old prominent estate. Never offered on the market until now.
This is one of the earliest books in English that describes the planting and culture of vines in England, and the making of wine from grapes grown in England' (Gable). It was first published in 1697, and a third edition appeared in 1700 with the title Vinetum angliae and the author identified by the initials'D. According to sources, the book offered here is either the 1697 first edition or possibly the 1699 second edition. It is hard to tell which one. However, it doesn't matter that much because both are extremely rare.Unfortunately this one lacks the title page - instead there is a manuscript title page. The correct title page would read: England's happiness improved, or, An infallible way to get riches, encrease plenty, and promote pleasure : containing the art of making wine of English grapes and other fruit, equal to that of France and Spain, &c. With their physical virtues : to make artificial wine, and order all sorts of wine to keep well, and recover what is faded : the whole art and mistery of distilling brandy, strong waters, cordial waters, &c. To make all the sorts of plain and purging ales, cyder, mead, marheglin, rum, rack, and many other useful liquors : to gather, order, and keep fruit in all seasons : the art and mistery of pickling flowers, fruits, herbs, buds, roots, fish, flesh, &c. To recover tainted flesh and make sundry sorts of vinegars : the whole art and mistery of a confectioner, the compleat market-man, or woman, to know all sorts of provisions, as poulterer's ware, fish, flesh, whether young or old, new or stale, &c.
And all other matters relating to marketing : particular rules for good and frugal house-keeping, and to destroy all sorts of vermin, with many other things very profitable, and never before made publick. London : Printed for Roger Clavill 1697 [or 1699]. ESTC R229812; Wing E2977A; cf.Gable G19820 (first edtion, 1697) & G42433 (third edition, 1700; Gable with the erroneous date 1672); not in Bitting, Cagle, Oxford or Vicaire. Very rare: ESTC traces two copies in libraries world-wide. Overall in good condition - As stated earlier, lacks title page, replaced with manuscript page. Generally the text is quite good, with just light age toning. Front board detached but present - NOTE: lacking rear board. Text ends with Finis on last page . Some leather worn from spine. F you collect 17th century British history, early grape culture, liquor, food, United Kingdom, Britain history, etc. This is a treasure you will not see again! Add this to your library, paper or ephemera collection.
Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the grape's growing environment (terroir), and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine.
These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes involve fermentation of additional crops including, rice wine and other fruit wines such as plum, cherry, pomegranate, currant and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest evidence of wine is from ancient Georgia (6000 BC), Iran (5000 BC), and Sicily (4000 BC).New World wine has some connection to alcoholic beverages made by the indigenous peoples of the Americas, but is mainly connected to later Viking area of Vinland and Spanish traditions in New Spain.  Later, as Old World wine further developed viticulture techniques, Europe would encompass three of the largest wine-producing regions. Today, the five countries with the largest wine-producing regions are in Italy, Spain, France, the United States, and China.
Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; Judaism also incorporates it in the Kiddush, and Christianity in the Eucharist. Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Israeli wine cultures are still connected to these ancient roots. Similarly the largest wine regions in Italy, Spain, and France have heritages in connection to sacramental wine, likewise, viticulture traditions in the Southwestern United States started within New Spain as Catholic friars and monks first produced wines in New Mexico and California.Wine has been produced for thousands of years, with evidence of ancient wine production in Georgia c. 7000 BC,  Armenia c. 4100 BC, Georgia  from 6000 BC, [failed verification] Iran from 5000 BC,  and Sicily from 4000 BC. The oldest archaeological evidence of wine produced from grapes has been found at sites in China c. 4100 BC, and Sicily c.  The earliest-extant evidence of wine production has been found in Armenia c. The altered consciousness produced by wine has been considered religious since its origin.
The ancient Greeks worshiped Dionysus or Bacchus and the Ancient Romans carried on his cult.  Consumption of ritual wine, probably a certain type of sweet wine originally, was part of Jewish practice since Biblical times and, as part of the eucharist commemorating Jesus's Last Supper, became even more essential to the Christian Church.
 Although Islam nominally forbade the production or consumption of wine, during its Golden Age, alchemists such as Geber pioneered wine's distillation for medicinal and industrial purposes such as the production of perfume. Wine production and consumption increased, burgeoning from the 15th century onwards as part of European expansion. Despite the devastating 1887 phylloxera louse infestation, modern science and technology adapted and industrial wine production and wine consumption now occur throughout the world. Archaeological sites of the Neolithic, Copper Age, and early Bronze Age in which vestiges of wine and olive growing have been found. The origins of wine predate written records, and modern archaeology is still uncertain about the details of the first cultivation of wild grapevines.It has been hypothesized that early humans climbed trees to pick berries, liked their sugary flavor, and then began collecting them. After a few days with fermentation setting in, juice at the bottom of any container would begin producing low-alcohol wine. According to this theory, things changed around 10,0008000 BC with the transition from a nomadic to a sedentism style of living, which led to agriculture and wine domestication. Wild grapes grow in Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, the northern Levant, coastal and southeastern Turkey, and northern Iran. The fermenting of strains of this wild Vitis vinifera subsp. Sylvestris the ancestor of the modern wine grape, V. Vinifera would have become easier following the development of pottery during the later Neolithic, c. The earliest discovered evidence, however, dates from several millennia later.
Georgian Kvevri ancient wine vessel. The earliest archaeological evidence of wine fermentation found has been at sites in China c.7000 BC,  Georgia c. 6000 BC,  Iran c. 5000 BC,  Greece c.
4500 BC, and Sicily c.  The earliest evidence of steady production of wine has been found in Armenia c.  The Iranian jars contained a form of retsina, using turpentine pine resin to more effectively seal and preserve the wine and is the earliest firm evidence of wine production to date.  Production spread to other sites in Greater Iran and Greek Macedonia by c.The Greek site is notable for the recovery at the site of the remnants of crushed grapes. Entrance to the Areni-1 cave in southern Armenia near the town of Areni. The cave is the location of the world's oldest known winery and where the world's oldest known shoe has been found. The oldest-known winery was discovered in the "Areni-1" cave in Vayots Dzor, Armenia.
4100 BC, the site contained a wine press, fermentation vats, jars, and cups.  Archaeologists also found V. Commenting on the importance of the find, McGovern said, The fact that winemaking was already so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology probably goes back much earlier. The seeds were from Vitis vinifera, a grape still used to make wine.  The cave remains date to about 4000 BC.
This is 900 years before the earliest comparable wine remains, found in Egyptian tombs. Mosaic depicting grapes and wine with Armenian inscription in Jerusalem (6th century). The fame of Persian wine has been well known in ancient times.
The carvings on the Audience Hall, known as Apadana Palace, in Persepolis, demonstrate soldiers of subjected nations by the Persian Empire bringing gifts to the Persian king. Apadana relief representing their sovereign to Persian king with their gifts, wine and horses, that Armenia was famous for, Armenia being one of the Satrapies of the Persian Empire. Detail of a relief on the eastern stairs of the Apadana Palace, Persepolis, depicting Armenian ambassadors, bringing wine to the Persian Emperor. Domesticated grapes were abundant in the Near East from the beginning of the early Bronze Age, starting in 3200 BC. There is also increasingly abundant evidence for winemaking in Sumer and Egypt in the 3rd millennium BC.Wine (mey) has been a theme of Persian poetry for millennia. There are many etiological myths told about the first cultivation of the grapevine and fermentation of wine. The Biblical Book of Genesis first mentions the production of wine by Noah following the Great Flood. Greek mythology placed the childhood of Dionysus and his discovery of viticulture at the fictional and variably located Mount Nysa but had him teach the practice to the peoples of central Anatolia. Because of this, he was rewarded to become a god of wine.
In Persian legend, King Jamshid banished a lady of his harem, causing her to become despondent and contemplate suicide. Going to the king's warehouse, the woman sought out a jar marked "poison" containing the remnants of the grapes that had spoiled and were now deemed undrinkable. After drinking the fermented wine, she found her spirits lifted. She took her discovery to the king, who became so enamored of his new drink that he not only accepted the woman back but also decreed that all grapes grown in Persepolis would be devoted to winemaking.
Grape cultivation, winemaking, and commerce in ancient Egypt c. Egyptian wine jars, 6th-4th century BC. Wine played an important role in ancient Egyptian ceremonial life. A thriving royal winemaking industry was established in the Nile Delta following the introduction of grape cultivation from the Levant to Egypt c.The industry was most likely the result of trade between Egypt and Canaan during the early Bronze Age, commencing from at least the 27th-century BC Third Dynasty, the beginning of the Old Kingdom period. Winemaking scenes on tomb walls, and the offering lists that accompanied them, included wine that was definitely produced in the delta vineyards. By the end of the Old Kingdom, five distinct wines, probably all produced in the Delta, constituted a canonical set of provisions for the afterlife.
Wine in ancient Egypt was predominantly red. Due to its resemblance to blood, much superstition surrounded wine-drinking in Egyptian culture. Shedeh, the most precious drink in ancient Egypt, is now known to have been a red wine and not fermented from pomegranates as previously thought.
 Plutarch's Moralia relates that, prior to Psammetichus I, the pharaohs did not drink wine nor offer it to the gods "thinking it to be the blood of those who had once battled against the gods and from whom, when they had fallen and had become commingled with the earth, they believed vines to have sprung". This was considered to be the reason why drunkenness "drives men out of their senses and crazes them, inasmuch as they are then filled with the blood of their forebears". Residue from five clay amphoras in Tutankhamun's tomb, however, have been shown to be that of white wine, so it was at least available to the Egyptians through trade if not produced domestically. Main articles: Phoenicians and wine and Lebanese wine.
As recipients of winemaking knowledge from areas to the east, the Phoenicians were instrumental in distributing wine, wine grapes, and winemaking technology throughout the Mediterranean region through their extensive trade network. Their use of amphoras for transporting wine was widely adopted and Phoenician-distributed grape varieties were important in the development of the wine industries of Rome and Greece. The only Carthaginian recipe to survive the Punic Wars was one by Mago for passum, a raisin wine that later became popular in Rome as well. Main article: Ancient Greece and wine. Dionysus in a vineyard; amphora dated to the late 6th century BC.Much of modern wine culture derives from the practices of the ancient Greeks. The vine preceded both the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures.  Many of the grapes grown in modern Greece are grown there exclusively and are similar or identical to the varieties grown in ancient times. Indeed, the most popular modern Greek wine, a strongly aromatic white called retsina, is thought to be a carryover from the ancient practice of lining the wine jugs with tree resin, imparting a distinct flavor to the drink. The "Feast of the Wine" (Me-tu-wo Ne-wo) was a festival in Mycenaean Greece celebrating the "Month of the New Wine".  Several ancient sources, such as the Roman Pliny the Elder, describe the ancient Greek method of using partly dehydrated gypsum before fermentation and some type of lime after, in order to reduce the acidity of the wine. The Greek Theophrastus provides the oldest known description of this aspect of Greek winemaking.
In Homeric mythology, wine is usually served in "mixing bowls" rather than consumed in an undiluted state. Dionysus, the Greek god of revelry and winefrequently referred to in the works of Homer and Aesopwas sometimes given the epithet Acratophorus, "giver of unmixed wine".  Homer frequently refers to the "wine-dark sea" (, onps póntos): in lack of a name for the color blue, the Greeks would simply refer to red wine's color. The earliest reference to a named wine is from the 7th-century BC lyrical poet Alcman, who praises Dénthis, a wine from the western foothills of Mount Taygetus in Messenia, as anthosmías ("flowery-scented"). Chian was credited as the first red wine, although it was known to the Greeks as "black wine". Coan was mixed with sea water and famously salty; Pramnian or Lesbian wine was a famous export as well. Aristotle mentions Lemnian wine, which was probably the same as the modern-day Lemnió varietal, a red wine with a bouquet of oregano and thyme. If so, this makes Lemnió the oldest known varietal still in cultivation. For Greece, alcohol such as wine had not fully developed into the rich cash crop that it would eventually become toward the peak of its reign.
However, as the emphasis of viticulture increased with economic demand so did the consumption of alcohol during the years to come. The Greeks embraced the production aspect as a way to expand and create economic growth throughout the region. Greek wine was widely known and exported throughout the Mediterranean, as amphoras with Greek styling and art have been found throughout the area.The Greeks may have even been involved in the first appearance of wine in ancient Egypt.  They introduced the V. Vinifera vine to and made wine in their numerous colonies in modern-day Italy,  Sicily,  southern France,  and Spain. A bronze wine storage vessel from the Shang Dynasty (16001046 BC).
Main articles: History of alcohol in China and History of wine in China. According to the latest research scholars stated: Following the definition of the CNCCEF, China has been viewed as New New World in the world wine map, despite the fact that grape growing and wine making in China date back to between 7000BCE and 9000BCE.Winemaking technology and wine culture are rooted in Chinese history and the definition of New New World is a misnomer that imparts a Euro centric bias onto wine history and ignores fact. " Furthermore, the history of Chinese grape wine has been confirmed and proven to date back 9000 years (7000 BC),  including "the earliest attested use" of wild grapes in wine as well as "earliest chemically confirmed alcoholic beverage in the world, according to Adjunct Professor of Anthropology Patrick McGovern, the Scientific Director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, and Health at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia.
 Professor McGovern continued: The Jiahu discovery illustrates how you should never give up hope in finding chemical evidence for a fermented beverage from the Palaeolithic period. Research very often has big surprises in store. You might think, as I did too, that the grape wines of Hajji Firuz, the Caucasus, and eastern Anatolia would prove to be the earliest alcoholic beverages in the world, coming from the so-called "Cradle of Civilization" in the Near East as they do.But then I was invited to go to China on the other side of Asia, and came back with samples that proved to be even earlierfrom around 7000 BC. " Furthermore, other scholarly research has stated that: "There is also evidence for various types of alcoholic beverage production, including rice and grape wine, beer, and various liquors including baijiu in China, ca. " Additionally, Professor Hames' research stated: "The earliest wine, or fermented liquor, came from China, predating Middle Eastern alcohol by a few thousand years.
Archeologists have found pottery shards showing remnants of rice and grape wine dating back to 7000 BCE in Jiahu village in Henan province. Archaeologists have discovered production from native "mountain grapes" like V. Filifolia during the 1st millennium BC.
 Production of beer had largely disappeared by the time of the Han dynasty, in favor of stronger drinks fermented from millet, rice, and other grains. Although these huangjiu have frequently been translated as "wine", they are typically 20% ABV and considered quite distinct from grape wine within China.
During the 2nd century BC, Zhang Qian's exploration of the Western Regions (modern Xinjiang) reached the Hellenistic successor states of Alexander's empire: Dayuan, Bactria, and the Indo-Greek Kingdom. These had brought viticulture into Central Asia and trade permitted the first wine produced from V. Vinifera grapes to be introduced to China. Wine was imported again when trade with the west was restored under the Tang dynasty, but it remained mostly imperial fare and it was not until the Song that its consumption spread among the gentry.  Marco Polo's 14th-century account noted the continuing preference for rice wines continuing in Yuan China.
Herodotus, writing about the culture of the ancient Persians (in particular, those of Pontus) writes that they were "very fond" of wine and drank it in large quantities. Main article: Ancient Rome and wine. The Roman Empire had an immense impact on the development of viticulture and oenology. Wine was an integral part of the Roman diet and winemaking became a precise business.
Virtually all of the major wine-producing regions of Western Europe today were established during the Roman Imperial era. During the Roman Empire, social norms began to shift as the production of alcohol increased. Further evidence suggests that widespread drunkenness and true alcoholism among the Romans began in the first century BC and reached its height in the first century AD.  Viniculture expanded so much that by AD c.
92 the emperor Domitian was forced to pass the first wine laws on record, banning the planting of any new vineyards in Italy and uprooting half of the vineyards in the provinces in order to increase the production of the necessary but less profitable grain. The measure was widely ignored but remained on the books until its 280 repeal by Probus.
Satyr working at a wine press of wicker-work mats (1st century AD relief). Winemaking technology improved considerably during the time of the Roman Empire, though technologies from the Bronze Age continued to be used alongside newer innovations.  Vitruvius noted how wine storage rooms were specially built facing north, "since that quarter is never subject to change but is always constant and unshifting",  and special smokehouses (fumaria) were developed to speed or mimic aging.
Many grape varieties and cultivation techniques were developed. The Romans also created a precursor to today's appellation systems, as certain regions gained reputations for their fine wines.
The most famous was the white Falernian from the LatianCampanian border, principally because of its high (15%) alcohol content. The Romans recognized three appellations: Caucinian Falernian from the highest slopes, Faustian Falernian from the center (named for its one-time owner Faustus Cornelius Sulla, son of the dictator), and generic Falernian from the lower slopes and plain. The esteemed vintages grew in value as they aged, and each region produced different varieties as well: dry, sweet, and light. Other famous wines were the sweet Alban from the Alban Hills and the Caecuban beloved by Horace and extirpated by Nero. Pliny cautioned that such'first-growth' wines not be smoked in a fumarium like lesser vintages.
 Pliny and others also named vinum Hadrianum as one of the most rated wines, along with Praetutian from Ancona on the Adriatic, Mamertine from Messina in Sicily, Rhaetic from Verona, and a few others. Wine, perhaps mixed with herbs and minerals, was assumed to serve medicinal purposes. During Roman times, the upper classes might dissolve pearls in wine for better health.
Cleopatra created her own legend by promising Antony she would "drink the value of a province" in one cup of wine, after which she drank an expensive pearl with a cup of the beverage.  Pliny relates that, after the ascension of Augustus, Setinum became the imperial wine because it did not cause him indigestion.
 When the Western Roman Empire fell during the 5th century, Europe entered a period of invasions and social turmoil, with the Roman Catholic Church as the only stable social structure. Through the Church, grape growing and winemaking technology, essential for the Mass, were preserved. Over the course of the later Empire, wine production gradually shifted to the east as Roman infrastructure and influence in the western regions gradually diminished.Production in Asia Minor, the Aegean and the Near East flourished through Late Antiquity and the Byzantine era. The oldest surviving bottle still containing liquid wine, the Speyer wine bottle, belonged to a Roman nobleman and it is dated at 325 or 350 AD. Main article: Wine in the Middle East.
See also: Phoenicians and wine and Lebanese wine. Lebanon is among the oldest sites of wine production in the world.  The Israelite Hosea (780725 BC) is said to have urged his followers to return to Yahweh so that "they will blossom as the vine, [and] their fragrance will be like the wine of Lebanon".  The Phoenicians of its coastal strip were instrumental in spreading wine and viticulture throughout the Mediterranean in ancient times.
However, in the Arabian peninsula, wine was traded by Aramaic merchants, as the climate was not well-suited to the growing of vines. Many other types of fermented drinks, however, were produced in the 5th and 6th centuries, including date and honey wines. The Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries brought many territories under Muslim control. Alcoholic drinks were prohibited by law, but the production of alcohol, wine in particular, seems to have thrived. Wine was a subject for many poets, even under Islamic rule, and many khalifas used to drink alcoholic beverages during their social and private meetings.Egyptian Jews leased vineyards from the Fatimid and Mamluk governments, produced wine for sacramental and medicinal use, and traded wine throughout the Eastern Mediterranean. Monastic cellarer tasting wine, from Li Livres dou Santé (French manuscript, late 13th century).
Christian monasteries in the Levant and Iraq often cultivated grapevines; they then distributed their vintages in taverns located on monastery grounds. Zoroastrians in Persia and Central Asia also engaged in the production of wine. Though not much is known about their wine trade, they did become known for their taverns. Wine in general found an industrial use in the medieval Middle East as feedstock after advances in distillation by Muslim alchemists allowed for the production of relatively pure ethanol, which was used in the perfume industry.
Wine was also for the first time distilled into brandy during this period. See also: History of Bordeaux wine. It has been one of history's cruel ironies that the [Christian medieval] blood libelaccusations against Jews using the blood of murdered gentile children for the making of wine and matzotbecame the false pretext for numerous pogroms.
And due to the danger, those who live in a place where blood libels occur are halachically exempted from using [kosher] red wine, lest it be seized as "evidence" against them. Pesach: What We Eat and Why We Eat It, Project Genesis. In the Middle Ages, wine was the common drink of all social classes in the south, where grapes were cultivated. In the north and east, where few if any grapes were grown, beer and ale were the usual beverages of both commoners and nobility.Wine was exported to the northern regions, but because of its relatively high expense was seldom consumed by the lower classes. Since wine was necessary, however, for the celebration of the Catholic Mass, assuring a supply was crucial. The Benedictine monks became one of the largest producers of wine in France and Germany, followed closely by the Cistercians. Other orders, such as the Carthusians, the Templars, and the Carmelites, are also notable both historically and in modern times as wine producers. The Benedictines owned vineyards in Champagne (Dom Perignon was a Benedictine monk), Burgundy, and Bordeaux in France, and in the Rheingau and Franconia in Germany. In 1435 Count John IV of Katzenelnbogen, a wealthy member of the Holy Roman high nobility near Frankfurt, was the first to plant Riesling, the most important German grape. In Portugal, a country with one of the oldest wine traditions, the first appellation system in the world was created.
A housewife of the merchant class or a servant in a noble household would have served wine at every meal, and had a selection of reds and whites alike. Home recipes for meads from this period are still in existence, along with recipes for spicing and masking flavors in wines, including the simple act of adding a small amount of honey.
As wines were kept in barrels, they were not extensively aged, and thus drunk quite young. To offset the effects of heavy alcohol consumption, wine was frequently watered down at a ratio of four or five parts water to one of wine. One medieval application of wine was the use of snake-stones (banded agate resembling the figural rings on a snake) dissolved in wine as a remedy for snake bites, which shows an early understanding of the effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in such situations. Jofroi of Waterford, a 13th-century Dominican, wrote a catalogue of all the known wines and ales of Europe, describing them with great relish and recommending them to academics and counsellors.
Rashi, a medieval French rabbi called the "father" of all subsequent commentaries on the Talmud and the Tanakh,  earned his living as a vintner. Spread and development in the Americas. See also: New World wine. European grape varieties were first brought to what is now Mexico by the first Spanish conquistadors to provide the necessities of the Catholic Holy Eucharist. Planted at Spanish missions, one variety came to be known as the Mission grape and is still planted today in small amounts.Succeeding waves of immigrants imported French, Italian and German grapes, although wine from those native to the Americas (whose flavors can be distinctly different) is also produced. Mexico became the most important wine producer starting in the 16th century, to the extent that its output began to affect Spanish commercial production. In this competitive climate, the Spanish king sent an executive order to halt Mexico's production of wines and the planting of vineyards. During the devastating phylloxera blight in late 19th-century Europe, it was found that Native American vines were immune to the pest. French-American hybrid grapes were developed and saw some use in Europe, but more important was the practice of grafting European grapevines to American rootstocks to protect vineyards from the insect. The practice continues to this day wherever phylloxera is present. Today, wine in the Americas is often associated with Argentina, California and Chile all of which produce a wide variety of wines, from inexpensive jug wines to high-quality varietals and proprietary blends. Most of the wine production in the Americas is based on Old World grape varieties, and wine-growing regions there have often "adopted" grapes that have become particularly closely identified with them. California's Zinfandel (from Croatia and Southern Italy), Argentina's Malbec, and Chile's Carmenère (both from France) are well-known examples. Until the latter half of the 20th century, American wine was generally viewed as inferior to that of Europe.
However, with the surprisingly favorable American showing at the Paris Wine tasting of 1976, New World wine began to garner respect in the land of wine's origins. Main article: Great French Wine Blight.In the late 19th century, the phylloxera louse brought widespread destruction to grapevines, wine production, and those whose livelihoods depended on them; far-reaching repercussions included the loss of many indigenous varieties. Lessons learned from the infestation led to the positive transformation of Europe's wine industry.
Bad vineyards were uprooted and their land turned to better uses. Some of France's best butter and cheese, for example, is now made from cows that graze on Charentais soil, which was previously covered with vines.
Cuvées were also standardized, important in creating certain wines as they are known today; Champagne and Bordeaux finally achieved the grape mixes that now define them. In the Balkans, where phylloxera had had little impact, the local varieties survived.However, the uneven transition from Ottoman rule has meant only gradual transformation in many vineyards. It is only in recent times that local varieties have gained recognition beyond "mass-market" wines like retsina. Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. See also: History of South African wine and Australian wine § History. In the context of wine, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and other countries without a wine tradition are considered New World producers. Wine production began in the Cape Province of what is now South Africa in the 1680s as a business for supplying ships. Australia's First Fleet (1788) brought cuttings of vines from South Africa, although initial plantings failed and the first successful vineyards were established in the early 19th century. Until quite late in the 20th century, the product of these countries was not well known outside their small export markets. For example, Australia exported mainly to the United Kingdom; New Zealand retained most of its wine for domestic consumption, and South Africa exported to the Kings of Europe.
However, with the increase in mechanization and scientific advances in winemaking, these countries became known for high-quality wine. A notable exception to the foregoing is that the Cape Province was the largest exporter of wine to Europe in the 18th century. History of South African wine. History of the wine press. The earliest known traces of wine are from ancient China c.
7000 BC,  Georgia c. 6000 BC,  Iran (Persia) c. 5000 BC,  and Sicily c.  Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. The earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 60005800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia.  Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was relatively later, likely having taken place in the Southern Caucasus (which encompasses Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan), or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, and northern Iran.
The earliest evidence of a rice and grape mixed based fermented drink was found in ancient China c. 7000 BC,  earliest evidence of wine in Georgia from 6000 BC,  Iran from 5000 BC,  and Sicily from 4000 BC.The earliest known wineries from 4100 BC is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia. The Areni-1 cave in Armenia is the world's oldest known winery.
Detail of a relief of the eastern stairs of the Apadana, Persepolis, depicting Armenians bringing an amphora, probably of wine, to the king. The more-than-400-year-old ametovka vine growing outside the Old Vine House in Maribor, Slovenia, producing the oldest wine in the world. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in ancient China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine.
However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out.  If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, which was introduced 6000 years later.
The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Lebanon, Israel, Syria, and Palestine.  The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and then throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact.
 As the first great traders in wine (cherem), the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina. Although the Nuragic culture in Sardinia already had a custom of consuming wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians. The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine.Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (8th century BC, but possibly relating earlier compositions), Alkman (7th century BC), and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten.  Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC. Pressing wine after the harvest; Tacuinum Sanitatis, 14th century. The first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production.  The Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell.  In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass.
Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves.  An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastardbad or tainted bastardo wine. Later, the descendants of the sacramental wine were refined for a more palatable taste.This gave rise to modern viticulture in French wine, Italian wine, Spanish wine, and these wine grape traditions were brought into New World wine. For example, Mission grapes were brought by Franciscan monks to New Mexico in 1628 beginning the New Mexico wine heritage, these grapes were also brought to California which started the California wine industry. Both of these regions eventually evolved into American wine's oldest and largest wine producers respectively.
 Earlier Viking expeditions of Vinland recorded the first grape vines found in the New World,  and prior to the Spanish establishing their American wine grape traditions in California and New Mexico, both France and Britain had unsuccessfully attempted to establish grapevines in Florida and Virginia respectively. Map showing the word for wine in European languages. The English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, Georgian , "wine" or "(grape) vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem win-o- cf. Armenian: , gini; Ancient Greek: oinos; Aeolic Greek: woinos; Hittite: wiyana; Lycian: oino.  The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo ,  meaning "in (the month)" or "(festival) of the new wine", and wo-no-wa-ti-si,  meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions.
 Linear B also includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine, i. The ultimate Indo-European origin of the word is the subject of continued debate. Some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in Indo-European languages e.
Armenian gini, Latin vinum, Ancient Greek , Russian [vno], Kartvelian e. Georgian [vin], and Semitic (wayn; Hebrew [jajin]), pointing to the possibility of a common origin of the word denoting "wine" in these language families.  The Georgian word goes back to Proto-Kartvelian wino-,  which is either a borrowing from Proto-Indo-European or the lexeme was specifically borrowed from Proto-Armenian einyo-, whence Armenian gini.  An alternate hypothesis by Fähnrich supposes wino-, a native Kartvelian word derived from the verbal root un- ('to bend').  See wino- for more.
All these theories place the origin of the word in the same geographical location, Trans-Caucasia, that has been established based on archeological and biomolecular studies as the origin of viticulture. Han dynasty tomb brick showing workers brewing alcohol. Wines made in the styles listed below can be vinified in many ways, ranging from dry to sweet. The red-wine production process involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin. Red wine is made from dark-colored grape varieties.
The actual color of the wine can range from violet, typical of young wines, through red for mature wines, to brown for older red wines. The juice from most purple grapes is actually greenish-white; the red color comes from anthocyan pigments (also called anthocyanins) present in the skin of the grape; exceptions are the relatively uncommon teinturier varieties, which actually have red flesh and produce red juice. Fermentation of the non-colored grape pulp produces white wine. The grapes from which white wine is produced are typically green or yellow.
Some varieties are well-known, such as the Chardonnay, Sauvignon, and Riesling. Other white wines are blended from multiple varieties; Tokay, Sherry, and Sauternes are examples of these. Dark-skinned grapes may be used to produce white wine if the wine-maker is careful not to let the skin stain the wort during the separation of the pulp-juice. Pinot noir, for example, is commonly used to produce champagne. Dry (non-sweet) white wine is the most common, derived from the complete fermentation of the wort.
Sweet wines are produced when the fermentation is interrupted before all the grape sugars are converted into alcohol. Sparkling wines, which are mostly white wines, are produced by not allowing carbon dioxide from the fermentation to escape during fermentation, which takes place in the bottle rather than in the barrel. A rosé wine incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine. It may be the oldest known type of wine, as it is the most straightforward to make with the skin contact method. The pink color can range from a pale orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the varietals used and wine-making techniques.There are three primary ways to produce rosé wine: skin contact (allowing dark grape skins to stain the wort), saignée (removing juice from the must early in fermentation and continuing fermentation of the juice separately), and blending (uncommon and discouraged in most wine growing regions). Rosé wines can be made still, semi-sparkling, or sparkling, with a wide range of sweetness levels from dry Provençal rosé to sweet White Zinfandels and blushes. Rosé wines are made from a wide variety of grapes all over the world. Wines from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced, and combined with the word "wine" (for example, apple wine and elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine or country wine (similar to French term vin de pays). Other than the grape varieties traditionally used for wine-making, most fruits naturally lack either sufficient fermentable sugars, proper amount of acidity, yeast amounts needed to promote or maintain fermentation, or a combination of these three Materials. This is probably one of the main reasons why wine derived from grapes has historically been more prevalent by far than other types, and why specific types of fruit wines have generally been confined to the regions in which the fruits were native or introduced for other reasons. Mead, also called honey wine, is created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops. As long as the primary substance fermented is honey, the drink is considered mead.
 Mead was produced in ancient history throughout Europe, Africa and Asia,  and was known in Europe before grape wine. Starch-based "wine" and wine-based products. Other drinks called "wine", such as barley wine and rice wine e.
Sake, huangjiu and cheongju, are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than traditional wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these latter cases, the term "wine" refers to the similarity in alcohol content rather than to the production process.  The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine requires that a "wine-based drink" must contain a minimum of 75% wine, but producers do not have to divulge the nature of the remaining 25%. Main article: List of grape varieties.
Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as minimums of 75% to 85%), the result is a "varietal" as opposed to a "blended" wine.Blended wines are not necessarily inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of wine-making. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. Labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), V. Riparia are native North American grapes usually grown to eat fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, and only occasionally made into wine.
Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European Vitis vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species' rootstock, a common practice due to their resistance to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (excluding some of the driest in the south) were devastated by the infestation, leading to widespread vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing region in the world except in Argentina and the Canary Islands the only places not yet exposed to the insect. In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures.
 The range of possible combinations of these factors can result in great differences among wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir.
 However, flavor differences are less desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency takes precedence. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film evaporation, and spinning cones. About 700 grapes go into one bottle of wine, approximately 2.6 pounds. Main article: Classification of wine. Wine grapes on a vine.
Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region e.
Bordeaux, Rioja and Chianti, while non-European wines are most often classified by grape e. Market recognition of particular regions has recently been leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of recognized non-European locales include Napa Valley, Santa Clara Valley, Sonoma Valley, Anderson Valley, and Mendocino County in California; Willamette Valley and Rogue Valley in Oregon; Columbia Valley in Washington; Barossa Valley in South Australia; Hunter Valley in New South Wales; Luján de Cuyo in Argentina; Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil; Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand; Central Valley in Chile; and in Canada, the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, and the Niagara Peninsula and Essex County regions of Ontario are the three largest producers.For example, Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, but may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association. Italian Moscato d'Asti, a DOCG wine. France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir, with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom, through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS), up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar, depending on the region.  Portugal has developed a system resembling that of France and, in fact, pioneered this concept in 1756 with a royal charter creating the Demarcated Douro Region and regulating the production and trade of wine.  Germany created a similar scheme in 2002, although it has not yet achieved the authority of the other countries' classification systems.
 Spain, Greece and Italy have classifications based on a dual system of region of origin and product quality. New World winesthose made outside the traditional wine regions of Europeare usually classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin, although there have been unofficial attempts to classify them by quality. According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, wine in Canada is an alcoholic drink that is produced by the complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, grape must, products derived solely from fresh grapes, or any combination of them. There are many materials added during the course of the manufacture, such as yeast, concentrated grape juice, dextrose, fructose, glucose or glucose solids, invert sugar, sugar, or aqueous solutions.
Calcium sulphate in such quantity that the content of soluble sulphates in the finished wine shall not exceed 0.2 percent weight by volume calculated as potassium sulphate. Calcium carbonate in such quantity that the content of tartaric acid in the finished wine shall not be less than 0.15 percent weight by volume. Also, sulphurous acid, including salts thereof, in such quantity that its content in the finished wine shall not exceed 70 parts per million in the free state, or 350 parts per million in the combined state, calculated as sulphur dioxide. Caramel, amylase and pectinase at a maximum level of use consistent with good manufacturing practice.
Brandy, fruit spirit or alcohol derived from the alcoholic fermentation of a food source distilled to not less than 94 percent alcohol by volume. In the United States, for a wine to be vintage-dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area AVA; e.Sonoma Valley, 95% of its volume must be from grapes harvested in that year.  If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate's impact on the character of a wine can be significant enough to cause different vintages from the same vineyard to vary dramatically in flavor and quality.  Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the particular vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer.
Superior vintages from reputable producers and regions will often command much higher prices than their average ones. Brunello, are only made in better-than-average years. For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps wine-makers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years.
 One recent study suggests that for the average wine drinker, the vintage year may not be as significant for perceived quality as had been thought, although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine.
See also: Wine tasting descriptors. Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar.
Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting (the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing) is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts.
In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines. During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration.  Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines.
Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all. [better source needed] When tasting wine, individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules e.Esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine-making. Typical intentional flavor elements in winechocolate, vanilla, or coffeeare those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself. Vertical and horizontal tasting involves a range of vintages within the same grape and vineyard, or the latter in which there is one vintage from multiple vineyards. "Banana" flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as "medicinal" or "Band-Aid" (4-ethylphenol), "spicy" or "smoky" (4-ethylguaiacol),  and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide).  Some varieties can also exhibit a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts as a result of limestone's presence in the vineyard's soil. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds released into the air.  Vaporization of these compounds can be accelerated by twirling the wine glass or serving at room temperature. Many drinkers prefer to chill red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais. The ideal temperature for serving a particular wine is a matter of debate by wine enthusiasts and sommeliers, but some broad guidelines have emerged that will generally enhance the experience of tasting certain common wines.
White wine should foster a sense of coolness, achieved by serving at "cellar temperature" 13 °C (55 °F). Light red wines drunk young should also be brought to the table at this temperature, where they will quickly rise a few degrees. Red wines are generally perceived best when served chambré ("at room temperature"). However, this does not mean the temperature of the dining roomoften around 21 °C (70 °F)but rather the coolest room in the house and, therefore, always slightly cooler than the dining room itself. Pinot noir should be brought to the table for serving at 16 °C (61 °F) and will reach its full bouquet at 18 °C (64 °F).
Cabernet Sauvignon, zinfandel, and Rhone varieties should be served at 18 °C (64 °F) and allowed to warm on the table to 21 °C (70 °F) for best aroma. See also: Aging of wine, Investment wine, and Storage of wine.
Château Margaux, a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France, is highly collectible.  "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods: those for which demand increases rather than decreases as their prices rise. Particular selections such as "Verticals", which span multiple vintages of a specific grape and vineyard, may be highly valued.
Characteristics of highly collectible wines include. A proven track record of holding well over time. The period for maturity and approachability that is many years long.
A consensus among experts as to the quality of the wines. Rigorous production methods at every stage, including grape selection and appropriate barrel aging. Investment in fine wine has attracted those who take advantage of their victims' relative ignorance of this wine market sector.
 Such wine fraudsters often profit by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from well-known wine regions, while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. As with any investment, thorough research is essential to making an informed decision.
See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions. Grapes fermenting to make wine in Western Australia. 2014 wine production estimates. (with link to wine article). May include official, semi-official or estimated data.Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between 30 and 50 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south,  and the northernmost are in Flen, Sweden, just north of the 59th parallel north.
Top ten wine exporting countries in 2013. 2013 export market shares. Wine Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity.The UK was the world's largest importer of wine in 2007. Wine consumption per person, 2014. Wine as a share of total alcohol consumption, 2010. Wine-consumption data from a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in liters of pure ethyl alcohol consumed per capita in a given year, according to the most recent data from the World Health Organization. The methodology includes persons 15 years of age or older.
 About 40% of individuals above the legal drinking age consider themselves "wine drinkers", which is higher than all other alcoholic beverages combined (34%) and those who do not drink at all (26%). Reduction of red wine for a sauce by cooking it on a stovetop. It is called a reduction because the heat boils off some of the water, leaving a more concentrated, wine-flavoured sauce.
Wine is a popular and important drink that accompanies and enhances a wide range of cuisines, from the simple and traditional stews to the most sophisticated and complex haute cuisines. Wine is often served with dinner. Sweet dessert wines may be served with the dessert course. In fine restaurants in Western countries, wine typically accompanies dinner.
At a restaurant, patrons are helped to make good food-wine pairings by the restaurant's sommelier or wine waiter. Individuals dining at home may use wine guides to help make foodwine pairings.Wine is also drunk without the accompaniment of a meal in wine bars or with a selection of cheeses (at a wine and cheese party). Wines are also used as a theme for organizing various events such as festivals around the world; the city of Kuopio in North Savonia, Finland is known for its annual Kuopio Wine Festivals (Kuopion viinijuhlat). Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a drink, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes.  Wine sauce is an example of a culinary sauce that uses wine as a primary ingredient.  Natural wines may exhibit a broad range of alcohol content, from below 9% to above 16% ABV, with most wines being in the 12.514.5% range.  Fortified wines (usually with brandy) may contain 20% alcohol or more.
See also: Religion and alcohol. The use of wine in ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian religious ceremonies was common.
Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. Baruch atah Hashem (Ado-nai) Eloheinu melech ha-olam, boray p'ree hagafen Praised be the Lord, our God, King of the universe, Creator of the fruit of the vine.
The blessing over wine said before consuming the drink. Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic obligation of adults to drink four cups of wine.  In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception that contributes to the Christian beliefs of the blood libel. It has been one of history's cruel ironies that the blood libelaccusations against Jews using the blood of murdered gentile children for the making of wine and matzotbecame the false pretext for numerous pogroms. And due to the danger, those who live in a place where blood libels occur are halachically exempted from using red wine, lest it be seized as "evidence" against them. Main articles: Christian views on alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible. Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki Deani monastery.
In Christianity, wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist, which originates in the Gospel account of the Last Supper (Gospel of Luke 22:19) describing Jesus sharing bread and wine with his disciples and commanding them to do this in remembrance of me. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). While some Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for the validity of the sacrament, many Protestants also allow (or require) pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century.
Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States, as well as to other countries to a lesser degree.  There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary drink, with Catholics and some mainline Protestants allowing wine drinking in moderation, and some conservative Protestant groups opposing consumption of alcohol altogether. The earliest viticulture tradition in the Southwestern United States starts with sacramental wine, beginning in the 1600s, with Christian friars and monks producing New Mexico wine.All alcohol is prohibited under Islamic law, although there has been a long tradition of drinking wine in some Islamic areas, especially in Iran. Main article: Islam and alcohol. Alcoholic drinks, including wine, are forbidden under most interpretations of Islamic law.  In many Muslim countries, possession or consumption of alcoholic drinks carry legal penalties.
Iran had previously had a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979.  In Greater Persia, mey (Persian wine) was a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years, long before the advent of Islam. Some Alevi sects one of the two main branches of Islam in Turkey (the other being Sunni Islam) use wine in their religious services.Certain exceptions to the ban on alcohol apply. Alcohol derived from a source other than the grape (or its byproducts) and the date is allowed in "very small quantities" (loosely defined as a quantity that does not cause intoxication) under the Sunni Hanafi madhab, for specific purposes (such as medicines), where the goal is not intoxication. However, modern Hanafi scholars regard alcohol consumption as totally forbidden. See also: Health effects of wine. Further information: Red wine headache. Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz). 10.6 g alcohol is 13%vol. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml 3.4 fl oz. Sugar and alcohol content can vary. G = micrograms mg = milligrams. Main article: Short-term effects of alcohol consumption. Wine contains ethyl alcohol, the intoxicating chemical in beer and distilled spirits. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person. The effects of wine depend on the amount of it consumed, the span of time over which consumption takes place, the amount of alcohol in the wine, and the amount of food eaten, among other factors. Drinking enough to reach a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03%-0.12% typically causes an overall improvement in mood, increased self-confidence and sociability, decreased anxiety, flushing of the face, and impairment of judgment and fine motor coordination. A BAC of 0.09% to 0.25% causes lethargy, sedation, balance problems and blurred vision. A BAC from 0.18% to 0.30% causes profound confusion, impaired speech e. Slurred speech, staggering, dizziness and vomiting. A BAC from 0.25% to 0.40% causes stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia, vomiting, and death may occur due to respiratory depression and inhalation of vomit during unconsciousness. A BAC from 0.35% to 0.80% causes coma, life-threatening respiratory depression and possibly fatal alcohol poisoning.
The operation of vehicles or machinery while drunk increases the risk of accident, and many countries have laws against drinking and driving. Wines can trigger positive emotions in a short period of time, such as feelings of relaxation and comfort. The context and quality of wine can affect the mood and emotions, too.See also: Long-term effects of alcohol consumption. Most significant of the possible long-term effects of ethanol, one of the constituents of wine.
Consumption of alcohol by pregnant mothers may result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The main active ingredient of wine is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to wine.
A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that moderate ethanol consumption brought no mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention from ethanol consumption.  A systematic analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease study found that consumption of ethanol increases the risk of cancer and increases the risk of all-cause mortality, and that the level of ethanol consumption that minimizes disease is zero consumption.  Some studies have concluded that drinking small quantities of alcohol (less than one drink in women and two in men)how often?
Is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and early death.  Drinking more than this amount actually increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. Some of these studies lumped former ethanol drinkers and life-long abstainers into a single group of nondrinkers, hiding the health benefits of life-long abstention from ethanol. Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking which may result in violence or accidents.  About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year. Alcoholism is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems.  It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.
 In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.  Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States.  No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine.
Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause liver cirrhosis and alcoholism.  The American Heart Association cautions people NOT to start drinking... If they do not already drink alcohol. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation.
Population studies exhibit a J-curve correlation between wine consumption and rates of heart disease: heavy drinkers have an elevated rate, while people who drink small amount up to 20 g of alcohol per day, approximately 200 ml (7 imp fl oz; 7 US fl oz) of 12.7% ABV wine have a lower rate than non-drinkers. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic drinks is correlated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular causes,  although the association is stronger for wine. Additionally, some studies have found a greater correlation of health benefits with red than white wine, though other studies have found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine, and these could be protective against cardiovascular disease. Although red wine contains the chemical resveratrol and there is tentative evidence it may improve heart health, the evidence is unclear for those at high risk as of 2013. Grape skins naturally produce resveratrol in response to fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during fermentation. White wine generally contains lower levels of the chemical as it has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. See also: List of food contamination incidents. Incidents of fraud, such as mislabeling the origin or quality of wines, have resulted in regulations on labeling. "Wine scandals" that have received media attention include. The 1985 Diethylene Glycol Wine Scandal, in which diethylene glycol was used as a sweetener in some Austrian wines. In 1986, methanol (a toxic type of alcohol) was used to alter certain wines manufactured in Italy. In 2008, some Italian wines were found to include sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.
In 2010, some Chinese red wines were found to be adulterated, and as a consequence China's Hebei province has shut down nearly 30 wineries. See also: Cork (material), Closure (bottle), Alternative wine closure, Wine bottle, Box wine, and Screw cap (wine).  An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps and synthetic plastic "corks".
Although alternative closures are less expensive and prevent cork taint, they have been blamed for such problems as excessive reduction. Some wines are packaged in thick plastic bags within corrugated fiberboard boxes, and are called "box wines", or "cask wine". Tucked inside the package is a tap affixed to the bag in box, or bladder, that is later extended by the consumer for serving the contents. Box wine can stay acceptably fresh for up to a month after opening because the bladder collapses as wine is dispensed, limiting contact with air and, thus, slowing the rate of oxidation. In contrast, bottled wine oxidizes more rapidly after opening because of the increasing ratio of air to wine as the contents are dispensed; it can degrade considerably in a few days.
Cans are one of the fastest-growing forms of alternative wine packaging on the market. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal the benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. The glass used to make bottles is a nontoxic, naturally occurring substance that is completely recyclable, whereas the plastics used for box-wine containers are typically much less environmentally friendly. However, wine-bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine, being lighter in package weight, has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution; however, box-wine plastics, even though possibly recyclable, can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles.
In addition, while a wine box is recyclable, its plastic bladder most likely is not.  Some people are drawn to canned wine due to its portability and recyclable packaging. Main article: Storage of wine.
Wine cellars, or wine rooms, if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Fine restaurants and some private homes have wine cellars. In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate-control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located. Because wine is a natural, perishable food product, all typesincluding red, white, sparkling, and fortifiedcan spoil when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity.When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 13 °C (55 °F),  others 15 °C (59 °F). Wine refrigerators offer a smaller alternative to wine cellars and are available in capacities ranging from small, 16-bottle units to furniture-quality pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging, but rather serve to chill wine to the proper temperature for drinking. These refrigerators keep the humidity low (usually under 50%), below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Lower humidity levels can dry out corks over time, allowing oxygen to enter the bottle, which reduces the wine's quality through oxidation.  While some types of alcohol are sometimes stored in the freezer, such as vodka, it is not possible to safely freeze wine in the bottle, as there is insufficient room for it to expand as it freezes and the bottle will usually crack. Certain shapes of bottle may allow the cork to be pushed out by the ice, but if the bottle is frozen on its side, the wine in the narrower neck will invariably freeze first, preventing this.
There are a large number of occupations and professions that are part of the wine industry, ranging from the individuals who grow the grapes, prepare the wine, bottle it, sell it, assess it, market it and finally make recommendations to clients and serve the wine. A person in charge of a wine cellar. A craftsperson of wooden barrels and casks.A cooperage is a facility that produces such casks. A wine scientist or wine chemist; a student of oenology.
Degrees in oenology and viticulture are available. A wine-maker may be trained as an oenologist, but often hires one as a consultant.
Also called a "wine steward", this is a specialist wine expert in charge of developing a restaurant's wine list, educating the staff about wine, and assisting customers with their selections (especially foodwine pairings). A wine producer; a person who makes wine. A specialist in the science of grapevines; a manager of vineyard pruning, irrigation, and pest control. A wine expert and journalist who tastes and reviews wines for books and magazines. A wine expert who tastes wines to ascertain their quality and flavour.A restaurant or wine bar server with a basic- to mid-level knowledge of wine and foodwine pairings. The item "VERY RARE England's Happiness Improved 1697 First Ed Book Wine Spirits etc" is in sale since Friday, January 1, 2021. This item is in the category "Books & Magazines\Antiquarian & Collectible". The seller is "dalebooks" and is located in Rochester, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.